美国公共土地勘测(USPLS)介绍

看来从TRS转换成经纬度不是一件标准的事,存在很多历史性和随意性

Meridian & Base Line http://www.esg.montana.edu/gl/img/west.jpg

原文:http://www.esg.montana.edu/gl/trs-data.html

Introduction: The United States Public Land Survey (USPLS) started with the Land Ordinance of 1785 and covers all US land that was not settled by the time of the official government survey. It does not include the east coast states including Kentucky and Tennessee or Texas. Small areas of other states that were settled before the survey also technically excluded. This explains the odd shapes of many mining claims in the west. Latter title transfers followed USPLS lines.

介绍:美国公共土地勘测(USPLS)开始与1785年的土地条例,覆盖美国所有土地,这不是由政府官方勘测建立的,他不包含东海岸的Kentucky, Tennessee 和 Texas,其他州的小部分地区在该条例之前就规定了。

Legal descriptions to 1 mile square sections have 4 parts: the State/Meridian, Township, Range and section number. Note that an official legal description always works from small to large areas, for example NW1/4, sec. 12, T.122N, R.71W, South Dakota, Fifth Principal Meridian.

法律描述一英里范围包含四个部分:起始子午线,镇区,范围,片号。注意官方法律描述同样适用从小到大的区域,如:NW1/4, sec. 12, T.122N, R.71W, South Dakota, Fifth Principal Meridian.

Meridian These are similar to UTM zones. Both apply to large areas based on a line of longitude, both are often left out of field data, and the position is not uniquely defined without them! The position of the principal meridian for any area, in contrast to UTM zones, is largely historical and arbitrary. The area governed by each Meridian, also in contrast to UTM zones, is irregular in size and shape, but it frequently follows state lines. Actually it is more correct to say that the states were formed according to the areas covered by the Meridians. Some of these areas include several large states while others include only a small part of a single state. Some of the smaller areas were caused by changes in tribal reservations. The default principal meridian for this program (Principal) is good for (as you might guess) Montana.

子午线 与通用横向麦卡托分区相似,同样以一条经线为基础询问大区域,同样通常忽略现场数据,且位置不是绝对的。与UTM分区不同的是主子午线可以是任何位置,具有很大的历史性和随意性。同样与UTM分区不同的是,每条子午线引导的区域有不规则的大小和形状,但通常他跟随州线。实际上更正确的说法是各个州的区域是根据这些子午线而形成的。有的区域包含几个大州,有的只包含一个州的一小部分,更小的区域是因为部落保留地而导致的。

Township These occur at 6 mile intervals east and west of the principal meridian. Township values are normally whole numbers starting at 1, but some exceptions occur. Township lines are normally adjusted every 4th line to correct for the spherical nature of the earth. These are called standard parallels.

镇区 存在于主子午线东西方向每间隔6英里,镇区值通常是从1开始的所有数字,但也有一些表达式存在,镇区线通常每四个号做地球球体校正,这称为标准平行线

Range These occur at 6 mile intervals north and south of a base line that is associated with each principal meridian. The position of the base line for each principal meridian is also historical and arbitrary. Range values are normally whole numbers starting at 1, but some exceptions occur. Range lines are normally adjusted every 4th line to correct for the spherical nature of the earth. These are called guide meridians.

范围 存在于与每条主子午线相关的基础线南北方向每间隔为6英里,每条主子午线的基础线位置同样具有历史性和随意性。范围值通常从数字1开始,也存在表达式,范围线每四个号根据地球球面做一次调整,称为引导子午线

Sections The intersection of Range lines and Township lines define 6 by 6 mile squares called Townships, which are divided into 36 sections. These are normally 1 by 1 mile squares, but some are altered to correct for the spherical earth. Most of these departures are pushed to the northern and western tiers of sections before the next standard parallels and guide meridians. Others are altered by simple survey errors. Note that old survey errors have legal precedence over new survey results so the odd-looking lines stay put. Section numbers always range between 1 and 36. Sections are normally divided by repeated quartering, but this is beyond the scope of this program.

片号 镇区线和范围线相交形成的6 X 6英里的区域称为镇区,每个镇区分为36片,通常是1 X 1英里区域,但有些会考虑地球球面影响而做改变,Most of these departures are pushed to the northern and western tiers of sections before the next standard parallels and guide meridians. 其他的是简单的测量错误导致的。这些老的勘测错误是法律保护的直到新的勘测结果,所以这些很奇怪的线依然保留。片号范围从1到36,片区通常也会校正,但这超出了这个程序的范围

The USPLS serves perfectly well for its intended used of land title management, but it is not very suitable for scientific point location management. Mapping and spatial statistics are much easier with a system that is more regular over large areas. The conversion to latitude/longitude allows the USPLS data to be better used in many other systems. The key conversion code is the trs2ll program by Martin Wefald, who has kindly made his program available for this project. The Graphical Locater interface allows easy verification and fine tuning of the position data.

USPLS对于土地所有权管理很完美,但他不是很适合科学的位置管理,制图和空间分析时,使用一套对大范围内适用的更规范系统会更加容易,转换成经纬度可以使USPLS数据在其他系统中更加好用,转换的代码是 trs2ll program 由 Martin Wefald 提供看来从TRS转换成经纬度不是一件标准的事,存在很多历史性和随意性

Meridian & Base Line http://www.esg.montana.edu/gl/img/west.jpg

原文:http://www.esg.montana.edu/gl/trs-data.html

Introduction: The United States Public Land Survey (USPLS) started with the Land Ordinance of 1785 and covers all US land that was not settled by the time of the official government survey. It does not include the east coast states including Kentucky and Tennessee or Texas. Small areas of other states that were settled before the survey also technically excluded. This explains the odd shapes of many mining claims in the west. Latter title transfers followed USPLS lines.

介绍:美国公共土地勘测(USPLS)开始与1785年的土地条例,覆盖美国所有土地,这不是由政府官方勘测建立的,他不包含东海岸的Kentucky, Tennessee 和 Texas,其他州的小部分地区在该条例之前就规定了。

Legal descriptions to 1 mile square sections have 4 parts: the State/Meridian, Township, Range and section number. Note that an official legal description always works from small to large areas, for example NW1/4, sec. 12, T.122N, R.71W, South Dakota, Fifth Principal Meridian.

法律描述一英里范围包含四个部分:起始子午线,镇区,范围,片号。注意官方法律描述同样适用从小到大的区域,如:NW1/4, sec. 12, T.122N, R.71W, South Dakota, Fifth Principal Meridian.

Meridian These are similar to UTM zones. Both apply to large areas based on a line of longitude, both are often left out of field data, and the position is not uniquely defined without them! The position of the principal meridian for any area, in contrast to UTM zones, is largely historical and arbitrary. The area governed by each Meridian, also in contrast to UTM zones, is irregular in size and shape, but it frequently follows state lines. Actually it is more correct to say that the states were formed according to the areas covered by the Meridians. Some of these areas include several large states while others include only a small part of a single state. Some of the smaller areas were caused by changes in tribal reservations. The default principal meridian for this program (Principal) is good for (as you might guess) Montana.

子午线 与通用横向麦卡托分区相似,同样以一条经线为基础询问大区域,同样通常忽略现场数据,且位置不是绝对的。与UTM分区不同的是主子午线可以是任何位置,具有很大的历史性和随意性。同样与UTM分区不同的是,每条子午线引导的区域有不规则的大小和形状,但通常他跟随州线。实际上更正确的说法是各个州的区域是根据这些子午线而形成的。有的区域包含几个大州,有的只包含一个州的一小部分,更小的区域是因为部落保留地而导致的。

Township These occur at 6 mile intervals east and west of the principal meridian. Township values are normally whole numbers starting at 1, but some exceptions occur. Township lines are normally adjusted every 4th line to correct for the spherical nature of the earth. These are called standard parallels.

镇区 存在于主子午线东西方向每间隔6英里,镇区值通常是从1开始的所有数字,但也有一些表达式存在,镇区线通常每四个号做地球球体校正,这称为标准平行线

Range These occur at 6 mile intervals north and south of a base line that is associated with each principal meridian. The position of the base line for each principal meridian is also historical and arbitrary. Range values are normally whole numbers starting at 1, but some exceptions occur. Range lines are normally adjusted every 4th line to correct for the spherical nature of the earth. These are called guide meridians.

范围 存在于与每条主子午线相关的基础线南北方向每间隔为6英里,每条主子午线的基础线位置同样具有历史性和随意性。范围值通常从数字1开始,也存在表达式,范围线每四个号根据地球球面做一次调整,称为引导子午线

Sections The intersection of Range lines and Township lines define 6 by 6 mile squares called Townships, which are divided into 36 sections. These are normally 1 by 1 mile squares, but some are altered to correct for the spherical earth. Most of these departures are pushed to the northern and western tiers of sections before the next standard parallels and guide meridians. Others are altered by simple survey errors. Note that old survey errors have legal precedence over new survey results so the odd-looking lines stay put. Section numbers always range between 1 and 36. Sections are normally divided by repeated quartering, but this is beyond the scope of this program.

片号 镇区线和范围线相交形成的6 X 6英里的区域称为镇区,每个镇区分为36片,通常是1 X 1英里区域,但有些会考虑地球球面影响而做改变,Most of these departures are pushed to the northern and western tiers of sections before the next standard parallels and guide meridians. 其他的是简单的测量错误导致的。这些老的勘测错误是法律保护的直到新的勘测结果,所以这些很奇怪的线依然保留。片号范围从1到36,片区通常也会校正,但这超出了这个程序的范围

The USPLS serves perfectly well for its intended used of land title management, but it is not very suitable for scientific point location management. Mapping and spatial statistics are much easier with a system that is more regular over large areas. The conversion to latitude/longitude allows the USPLS data to be better used in many other systems. The key conversion code is the trs2ll program by Martin Wefald, who has kindly made his program available for this project. The Graphical Locater interface allows easy verification and fine tuning of the position data.

USPLS对于土地所有权管理很完美,但他不是很适合科学的位置管理,制图和空间分析时,使用一套对大范围内适用的更规范系统会更加容易,转换成经纬度可以使USPLS数据在其他系统中更加好用,转换的代码是 trs2ll program 由 Martin Wefald 提供看来从TRS转换成经纬度不是一件标准的事,存在很多历史性和随意性

Meridian & Base Line http://www.esg.montana.edu/gl/img/west.jpg

原文:http://www.esg.montana.edu/gl/trs-data.html

Introduction: The United States Public Land Survey (USPLS) started with the Land Ordinance of 1785 and covers all US land that was not settled by the time of the official government survey. It does not include the east coast states including Kentucky and Tennessee or Texas. Small areas of other states that were settled before the survey also technically excluded. This explains the odd shapes of many mining claims in the west. Latter title transfers followed USPLS lines.

介绍:美国公共土地勘测(USPLS)开始与1785年的土地条例,覆盖美国所有土地,这不是由政府官方勘测建立的,他不包含东海岸的Kentucky, Tennessee 和 Texas,其他州的小部分地区在该条例之前就规定了。

Legal descriptions to 1 mile square sections have 4 parts: the State/Meridian, Township, Range and section number. Note that an official legal description always works from small to large areas, for example NW1/4, sec. 12, T.122N, R.71W, South Dakota, Fifth Principal Meridian.

法律描述一英里范围包含四个部分:起始子午线,镇区,范围,片号。注意官方法律描述同样适用从小到大的区域,如:NW1/4, sec. 12, T.122N, R.71W, South Dakota, Fifth Principal Meridian.

Meridian These are similar to UTM zones. Both apply to large areas based on a line of longitude, both are often left out of field data, and the position is not uniquely defined without them! The position of the principal meridian for any area, in contrast to UTM zones, is largely historical and arbitrary. The area governed by each Meridian, also in contrast to UTM zones, is irregular in size and shape, but it frequently follows state lines. Actually it is more correct to say that the states were formed according to the areas covered by the Meridians. Some of these areas include several large states while others include only a small part of a single state. Some of the smaller areas were caused by changes in tribal reservations. The default principal meridian for this program (Principal) is good for (as you might guess) Montana.

子午线 与通用横向麦卡托分区相似,同样以一条经线为基础询问大区域,同样通常忽略现场数据,且位置不是绝对的。与UTM分区不同的是主子午线可以是任何位置,具有很大的历史性和随意性。同样与UTM分区不同的是,每条子午线引导的区域有不规则的大小和形状,但通常他跟随州线。实际上更正确的说法是各个州的区域是根据这些子午线而形成的。有的区域包含几个大州,有的只包含一个州的一小部分,更小的区域是因为部落保留地而导致的。

Township These occur at 6 mile intervals east and west of the principal meridian. Township values are normally whole numbers starting at 1, but some exceptions occur. Township lines are normally adjusted every 4th line to correct for the spherical nature of the earth. These are called standard parallels.

镇区 存在于主子午线东西方向每间隔6英里,镇区值通常是从1开始的所有数字,但也有一些表达式存在,镇区线通常每四个号做地球球体校正,这称为标准平行线

Range These occur at 6 mile intervals north and south of a base line that is associated with each principal meridian. The position of the base line for each principal meridian is also historical and arbitrary. Range values are normally whole numbers starting at 1, but some exceptions occur. Range lines are normally adjusted every 4th line to correct for the spherical nature of the earth. These are called guide meridians.

范围 存在于与每条主子午线相关的基础线南北方向每间隔为6英里,每条主子午线的基础线位置同样具有历史性和随意性。范围值通常从数字1开始,也存在表达式,范围线每四个号根据地球球面做一次调整,称为引导子午线

Sections The intersection of Range lines and Township lines define 6 by 6 mile squares called Townships, which are divided into 36 sections. These are normally 1 by 1 mile squares, but some are altered to correct for the spherical earth. Most of these departures are pushed to the northern and western tiers of sections before the next standard parallels and guide meridians. Others are altered by simple survey errors. Note that old survey errors have legal precedence over new survey results so the odd-looking lines stay put. Section numbers always range between 1 and 36. Sections are normally divided by repeated quartering, but this is beyond the scope of this program.

片号 镇区线和范围线相交形成的6 X 6英里的区域称为镇区,每个镇区分为36片,通常是1 X 1英里区域,但有些会考虑地球球面影响而做改变,Most of these departures are pushed to the northern and western tiers of sections before the next standard parallels and guide meridians. 其他的是简单的测量错误导致的。这些老的勘测错误是法律保护的直到新的勘测结果,所以这些很奇怪的线依然保留。片号范围从1到36,片区通常也会校正,但这超出了这个程序的范围

The USPLS serves perfectly well for its intended used of land title management, but it is not very suitable for scientific point location management. Mapping and spatial statistics are much easier with a system that is more regular over large areas. The conversion to latitude/longitude allows the USPLS data to be better used in many other systems. The key conversion code is the trs2ll program by Martin Wefald, who has kindly made his program available for this project. The Graphical Locater interface allows easy verification and fine tuning of the position data.

USPLS对于土地所有权管理很完美,但他不是很适合科学的位置管理,制图和空间分析时,使用一套对大范围内适用的更规范系统会更加容易,转换成经纬度可以使USPLS数据在其他系统中更加好用,转换的代码是 trs2ll program 由 Martin Wefald 提供


3 × = 十五